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December 05 2014

SmokeyTheBear
3306 2f3c
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Tactical Russian no. 1
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Every girl's crazy 'bout a half-dressed man
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7783 74aa
Love this Movie ;) --> Human Traffic
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December 03 2014

SmokeyTheBear
9428 11e8 500

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lolthefunniest:

life hack: break your fucking arm

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Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010
by Richard Fuchs, Martin Herold, et al.
Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12714

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/enhanced/doi/10.1111/gcb.12714/

Abstract
Historic land-cover/use change is important for studies on climate change, soil carbon, and biodiversity assessments. Available reconstructions focus on the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). This leads to a serious underestimation of land-cover/use dynamics with impacts on the biogeochemical and environmental assessments based on these reconstructions. In this study, we quantified to what extent land-cover/use reconstructions underestimate land-cover/use changes in Europe for the 1900–2010 period by accounting for net changes only. We empirically analyzed available historic land-change data, quantified their uncertainty, corrected for spatial-temporal effects and identified underlying processes causing differences between gross and net changes. Gross changes varied for different land classes (largest for forest and grassland) and led to two to four times the amount of net changes. We applied the empirical results of gross change quantities in a spatially explicit reconstruction of historic land change to reconstruct gross changes for the EU27 plus Switzerland at 1 km spatial resolution between 1950 and 2010. In addition, the reconstruction was extended back to 1900 to explore the effects of accounting for gross changes on longer time scales. We created a land-change reconstruction that only accounted for net changes for comparison. Our two model outputs were compared with five commonly used global reconstructions for the same period and area. In our reconstruction, gross changes led in total to a 56% area change (ca. 0.5% yr−1) between 1900 and 2010 and cover twice the area of net changes. All global reconstructions used for comparison estimated fewer changes than our gross change reconstruction. Main land-change processes were cropland/grassland dynamics and afforestation, and also deforestation and urbanization.
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December 01 2014

SmokeyTheBear
1610 a597 500
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Play fullscreen
▶ World's Simplest Electric Train 【世界一簡単な構造の電車】
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November 25 2014

SmokeyTheBear
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November 11 2014

SmokeyTheBear

October 24 2014

SmokeyTheBear
8121 dbd6
3059
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October 23 2014

SmokeyTheBear
3882 6d70
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